Physiological biomarkers such as those that reflect oxidative stress provide us with a particular focal lens that shows what is happening within individuals. However, evolution involves changes at the populational level. Natural selection acts on the individual. Populations evolve. To understand the evolutionary aspects of aging and mortality, we need to measure these factors across populations and species. How do we do this? This seems like an odd question since the obvious answer might be to simply count the number of deaths in a population. This seems like a good place to start, but death in humans is more than demographic assessments of mortality. To fully appreciate and delve into the evolutionary anthropology of death, and how it fits into aging in men, a more nuanced approach would be more informative and, in my opinion, more interesting. First we need some basic skills to assess mortality and death. Then we will look at patterns of mortality and life span, specifically differences between men and women. Talking about hr app is a good step forward.
There are basically two ways to measure and quantify death. One can count the number of deaths in specific age classes. In very rough terms, for example, we can assess the risk of death in younger individuals compared to older individuals. Interestingly the mortality patterns mirror each other, albeit for different reasons. From this measure one can assess the probability of death and the likelihood of reaching a certain age. This can be envisioned as running a gauntlet with various hazards being faced at each stage. The hazards can be external or internal (the latter would result from physical imperfections). Looking after mental health in the workplace can sometimes be quite difficult.
Depending on the research question, biologists also are interested in the life span of an organism. That is, what is the common shelf life of an individual in a given species? Life span is fairly easy to assess. One only needs to record birth and death dates from the headstones in any cemetery to compare the life spans of men and women. It is not as easy to do this for other great apes. Life span can sometimes be garnered from captive populations, but getting accurate data from wild populations is much more difficult. Nonetheless, the efforts of several generations of primatologists have allowed us to address this question. If you are a manager then mental health first aid is a subject that you will be aware of.
Anthropologists Michael Gurven and Hillard Kaplan have coalesced a remarkable amount of information on mortality patterns among various hunter-gatherer societies. In their analysis, they document that life as a forager is challenging to say the least compared to modern lifestyles, especially for children and women of childbearing age. Nonetheless, forager populations exhibit important similarities to those of WEIRD populations, including high mortality during infancy and after the age of fifty. To garner a fuller, more comparative perspective, let’s look at one forager group in association with our closest evolutionary cousins, chimpanzees. Everyone should feel safe and supported to talk about employee wellbeing with their line manager.
Anthropologist Kim Hill and his collaborators described mortality patterns across the life span of two species in different environments: human hunter-gatherers represented by the Ache of Paraguay and chimpanzees. Why hunter-gatherers? The assumption is that the social, energetic, and environmental challenges that hunter-gatherers face during everyday life are more reflective of the conditions under which humans evolved over the past couple of million years compared to the modern conditions we commonly face today.